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BME 1 Fall Quarter 2019: Project 1 - Cancer Report


Cancer Types


Lung (non-small cell)

Lung (small cell)













Liver (hepatocellular)




Brain (glioma)

Skin (melanoma)

Skin (non-melanoma)


Ewing sarcoma






Lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's)

Lymphoma (Hodgkin's)

Multiple Myeloma

Leukemia (lymphoblastic)

Leukemia (myelogeneous



APA Style Material

The References page should conform to the APA Style (American Psychological Association).  The APA's Publication Manual was released in July 2009. These links are for the sixth edition of the manual.

Locate an available doi here! A doi is a set of numbers (sometimes letters, too) that helps you locate specific texts or objects. Anything can have a doi, but dois are often used to identify articles.

Find out about software to make citing sources easy here.

Sample References

The following are mostly made up examples. The definitive resource for this information is APA's latest Publication Manual, which in available at Langson Library's Reference Desk under call number BF76.7 .P83 2010.

See Citations: Introductory Guide for simple examples.

See Visual Literacy for an extensive guide to citing images using APA.

Journal reference in a reference list

Rosenvinge, J.-H., Skårderud, F., & Thune-Larsen, K. (2003). Can educational programmes raise clinical competence in treating eating disorders?  Results from a Norwegian trial. European Eating Disorders Review, 11, 329-343. doi:10.1002/erv.503

Notes: The above should be a hanging indent and double spaced. J.-H. is a hyphenated first name. The issue number is not present because this journal title is continuously paginated. The doi or digitial object identifier indicates retrieval from an online resource. Doi numbers are available in PsycINFO and/or on the article itself. If there is no doi and the article was read in a pdf document, I recommend citing it as a print reference. This is not in strict accordance with APA's Publication Manual, but the difficulty of finding a doi or of finding a publisher website makes this advisable. Can't find a doi? Locate an available doi here! Not all academic articles in Psychology that are available online have dois. Some online articles will have PMCIDs, which are Pub Med Central Identification numbers (e.g. PMCID: PMC2626925). PMCIDs are unique identifiers equivalent to DOIs, but different than a PMID

Journal reference in text

Example 1

(Rosenvinge, Skårderud & Thune-Larsen, 2003) for the first time the reference is cited. Afterwards, use (Rosenvinge et al., 2003). If citing the same article in the same paragraph, use only Rosenvinge et al without the year. 

Notes: Cite up to five authors for the first time referenced in text. If there are six or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by et al and continue to do so throughout the text. Within the text of a paper, you may either use the author's name followed by a comma with the date of the publication, or you may use the author's name outside the comma with the date in parentheses immediately following the author's name.

Example 2

(Smith & Jones, 2009) OR Smith and Jones (2009)

Notes: Use "and" when you use the authors names in a sentence and "&" when you place it in parentheses.


Book chapter in a reference list

Vugt, M. van, & Park, J. H. (2010). The tribal instinct hypothesis: Evolution and the social psychology of intergroup relations. In S. Stürmer & M. Snyder (Eds.), The psychology of prosocial behavior: Group processes, intergroup relations, and helping (pp. 6-20). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Notes: The above should be a hanging indent and double spaced. Remember that author names are capitalized according to the country of origin (see the biographical section of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary in Langson Library Reference at PE1628 .M36 2003).

Book chapter in text

(Vugt & Park, 2010)

Notes: If you are quoting or referring to a single page, the in text citation might be (Vugt & Park, 2010, p. 7). If citing a particular chapter, (Vugt & Park, 2010, chap. 2). If citing a set of pages, use (Vugt & Park, 2010, pp. 7-10).


Report in a reference list - Tehcnical and research reports

Sahoo, A. (2011, April).  Probiotics and prebiotics in clinical nutrition: The regulatory landscape, unmet need and disease applications, future growth and key players (Reference Code: BI00044-004). Retrieved from Business Insights

Notes: The above should be a hanging indent and double spaced. Including the report number is not always necessary, but it can be useful. Use the same language as that on the actual document. The publisher is listed as part of the retrieval statement here because it was retrieved online. There is no location listed here because the document did not list one. Depending on your preference, you could investigate the location of the publisher, but only information retrievable from the document must be reflected.

Report in text

(Sahoo, 2011)

Notes: The month is not necessary. Page number citations are similar to those in book chapters.


Project 1 - Cancer Report

Following are hints for the project:

  1. Read the assignment carefully - 3 parts - -1) schedule group meeting with librarian, assignment of all group members jobs, selection of cancer type and assignments due Tues, Oct 8; 2) the annotated bibliography due TU, October 15  ; 3) final paper is due TH,       October 24
  2. Consider consulting or reading some important literature such as Cancer Blueprint of a Tumor (2018), Rethinking Cancer in the LA TImes (Oct 12, 2017) Malignant: How Cancer Becomes Us (2013)
  3. Choose the form of cancer that you will be studying such as gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, etc prior to making appointments with librarian
  4. Establish roles for each member of the group - Leader, Editor, Curator, Journal Researcher and Art Director - please realize that everyone will be conducting research for their contribution as noted in #7 - some group members may be performing multiple roles
  5. Consider creating workspace to share on Google Drive and create outline of final report - learn more about options for UCI students at
  6. This project is divided into 3 tasks: 1) meet with group, determine assignments & responsibilities - review cancer types; 2) conduct literature review and identify coverage to be included in the annotated bibliography; 3) compose report with references, relevant figures and images
  7. the following topics must be addressed, so divide up the assignment as follows:

    - incidence and impact statistics - background, population demographics, mortality, # of cases

    - relevant biological and anatomical features related to malignancy - medical, physiological, anatomical, biological

    - how are malignancies detected? - symptoms, diagnostics, biopsies, scans, etc

    - how are they treated? - therapies & treatments, drug interventions, chemo cocktail, radiation, surgeries, rehabilitation

    - what are the critical needs going forward? - clinical trials, stem cell therapies, new & emerging research directions

  8. Contact Liaison Librarian for appointment or meeting with group - as many group members as can should attend that meeting; it is a big responsibility for your group leaders to translate or share all the details for every assignment.  This is also a good set up for your other two assignments about how to find and use the appropriate resources.  Please try and have the entire group to come; in order to reserve appointment times from October 5 - 17 sign up at using your eMail address.  Please keep the appointments for each hour uniform for a subject - same kind of cancer so that the sessions are particularly relevant to your topic. I can also meet outside of these time slots if necessary - just contact me directly via eMail (  indicating the best times and I will confirm. There will be separate sign up sheets for each of the three assigned projects. Please note that representatives of multiple groups working on the same cancer can come to the same meeting.   Please sign in to this Google doc reservation form with your UCI eMail address, for example, - you can find additional information about Google Apps for UCI users at - this is a required activity - the goal is for the entire group to be present for PROJECT 1.
  9. Terminology is important - neoplasms is used in PubMed instead of cancers; some cancers are about certain parts of the body, ie) you will find references to gastric cancer as well as stomach cancer, or another example is anal/renal cancer; some emphasis is placed on staging of cancer - 1 refers to least advanced and 5 would suggest a far more advanced case; cancer travels and the first diagnosis of cancer is what the patient suffers from even though it may have metasticized many years later somewhere else and that ultimately caused death
  10. the 4 databases that index journal articles, PubMed, Google Scholar and the Web of Science, Scopus all contain peer-reviewed journal articles focus on diagnosis and therapies - conduct literature searches for journal articles in databases , and trace references found in other reference sources
  11. recognize that peer review refers to the publication process - specialists comment upon submissions to ascertain that the research and data can be replicated, the findings are accurate and that new contributions of the literature are made - searching the PubMed database will assure that content has been peer reviewed

Research background of specific diagnostic - remember that in the clinical cancer literature, neoplasm is used instead of cancer

Consider age factors, predisposition, family health history, external & environmental factors

Develop chronology

Consider form of cancer, history of patient attributes, legitimate & bonafide treatments

Examine technologies - find short films on MedlinePlus, YouTube; or journal content that incorporates sound, images and text in JoVE, images (on the Subject Guide under Finding Images or Medical Images)

Sources - you should examine:

  1. Reference tools - encyclopedias (Medline Plus or WebMD), handbooks that contain background information - often the medical and specifically the cancer literature is released by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) which is the umbrella governmental unit over the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM), and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) all excellent sources of information.   
  2. Journals - peer reviewed from a database such as PubMed (use the link to the UCI version below so that you get the UC eLinks), Google Scholar, or Web of Science.  Make sure that all journal references come from journals noted on the assignment list
  3. Medical Textbooks - ex) Encyclopedia of Cancer (is an eBook listed below), or search in Library Search for other books or eBooks
  4. Support group information directed for the patient and their family - from the American Cancer Society or the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society; from the national cancer centers or major hospitals

Citing your sources - this may be a bit complicated depending on what the source is and in what format it was that you consulted.  For journal articles, the format is:

Author(s). Title of article.  Source (Title of Publication) volume # (issue #), pages, (date). 

If you do not have all these elements and it was an online article, enter the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) which is a unique number corresponding to the article.  Do not use the URL except for a website and date in parentheses when you last visited site.

New eBooks published in 2015 about specific cancers

Liaison Librarian

Julia Gelfand's picture
Julia Gelfand
Office: Science Library 228

Phone: 949-824-4971


Outline of Report for Project 1

The report should include a total of 5 pages and follow this outline and directions for formatting on assignment sheet:

  1. Title Page: title, course, TA, names/jobs/signature of group members
  2. Abstract: 1 paragraph, 350 word max, summary of entire report - write last
  3. Background (Incidence rates, demographic census) & clinical assessment (medical): 1-1.5 pp
  4. Diagnosis & Symptoms: 1-1.5 pp
  5. Therapy & Treatment: 1-1.5 pp
  6. Conclusions - recommendation for future focus area: .5-1 page
  7. References: ~1 p. - make sure that you numbered the references in the text and include numerically in sequence in your bibliography full citation (author(s), title of article, source, volume #, issue, pages, date, PMID #
  8. Figures: reasonable limit

Should correspond to following roles of each group member or some variation of this:

  1. leader/convener - abstract/conclusions/future focus
  2. editor - common voice - diagnostics/symptoms; references
  3. journal researcher - background/demographic census
  4. curator - therapy, treatment, interventions
  5. art director - looks for appropriate relevant images; works on layout of presentation & submission

Appropriate Medical Journals

How do you know if the journal articles that you find meet the criteria established in class?  You want to make sure the articles::

  • Are peer-reviewed
  • Reflect clinical research that has been tested on a significant population of afflicted patients
  • Are from major respected journals and not from small insignificant sources

Lists of highly ranked journals in cancer research include:

Citing Reference Sources for this Assignment

This assignment asks that you include at least 5 references that meet the following criteria:

  • papers published from 2013 to current date (latest 5 years)
  • that three articles are from the list noted in above link about high impact journals and one is from the current year; searching for "Review Articles" can be helpful because of the many references they include
  • they contain a PMID # - obtained from the PubMed entry (if you find an article in another source enter the journal title in PubMed to obtain the PMID #
  • try and include from a variety of sources that also reflect the different components of the paper

Citing Reference Sources

Citing Reference Sources

Bibliography should include:

  • List in number order (based on appearance)
  • Journal article - Author (Last, FM. (Date). Title of Article. Journal Title, Volume #,(Issue #), Pages . PMID # - examples follow:
    • Hanahan, D. & Weinberg, R.A. The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 144, 646-74 (2011). PMID 21376230
    • Paszek, M.J., Zahir, N., et al. Tensional Homeostasis and the Malignant Phenotype. Cancer Cell 8(3), 241-54 (2005). PMID 16169468
  • Website: Name and URL
    • National Cancer Institute (
    • Susan G.Kamon for the Cure (

Regarding Annotations:  You are asked to provide annotations for each cited article - they should include:  A few short sentences that indicate the value of the article for the reason that you searched it - for instance, "Provides current explanation and details about how immunotherapy is a successful treatment of this kind of cancer and what kind of experience patients have with this." OR "Patients often are diagnosed with a more advanced stage of ___cancer because of their being asymptomatic for a long while and this article provides case studies about how this ____procedure or test can detect earlier signs of the cancer."


Some Good News on Cancer

LA Times Article, May 23, 2018 indicates that U.S. death rates fall for men, women and children of all backgrounds and Science Daily, January 8, 2019 reports that cancer mortality milestone of 25 years of continuous decline

Update on Elsevier 2019 Access

The UC in not renewing its subscription to the Elsevier Journal package for 2019 now dictates that content from those journals be requested via ILL. Also selective content for which the UC does not have perpetual access must be requested.  Delivery is free &  fast but not immediate and requires planning for access for current content from journals such as Lancet, Lancet Oncology, Cancer Letters, Cancer Epidemiology, Gene and hundreds of others.  Check ScienceDirect for access or use the Request function in databases to order articles, or find alternative sources.  When searching pay special attention to the publisher.