A good strategy for determining if the Census has the statistics you are looking for is examine the questions asked. There are a couple resources for this information.
From 1790-2000, the Census collected data every 10 years. This is the Decennial Census, and from 1790 forward gave researchers a statistical picture of the United States. However, one of the drawbacks of collecting data in this way is its currency: various factors can cause a geographic area to change dramatically in a short time, and relying on official census statistics that are 3+ years old could pose a problem. Researchers, local governments and others wanted reliable statistics on a more frequent basis.
In 2005, the Census Bureau began gathering data in a new way: the American Community Survey. This survey is intended to provide the public with a current statistical average of a geographic area over 1-year, 3-year and 5-year time periods. The time periods correspond to data precision, availability by geography, and currency: