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Research Librarian for the Health Sciences, Medicine, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmacology, Public Health

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Hector R. Perez-Gilbe
He, Him, His
UC Irvine
Science Library
Room 232
Irvine, CA 92623
(949) 824-6957

AMA Style Manual

The style manual defined by the American Medical Association and used in many of its and related medical journals is known as the AMA Style.  It is commonly available via many bibliographic management software packages as an option of choice.  It is also an option when one searches the Academic Search Complete Database.  Examples of a journal citation in AMA format follow:

Ullah s, Dasti J, Malik S. Descriptive epidemiology of hereditary musculoskeletal and limb defects in the isolated population of Chitral, North-West Pakisotan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences [serial online]. September 2015; 31(5):1-6.Available from Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed October 23, 2015.

Diaz-Valencia P, Bougnères P, Valleron A. Global epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in young adults and adults: a systematic review. BMC Public Health [serial online]. August 2015;15(1):1-15. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed October 23, 2015.

APA Style Material

The latest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psycholocial Association was released in July 2009 and is located at the Reference Desks at all the UCI Libraries at BF76.7 .P83 2010  . These links are for the sixth edition of the manual.

Locate an available doi here! A doi is a set of numbers (sometimes letters, too) that helps you locate specific texts or objects. Anything can have a doi, but dois are often used to identify articles.

Find out about software to make citing sources easy here.

APA "How Tos" from Universities

Sample References

The following are mostly made up examples. The definitive resource for this information is APA's latest Publication Manual, which in available at Langson Library's Reference Desk under call number BF76.7 .P83 2010.

See Citations: Introductory Guide for simple examples.

See Visual Literacy for an extensive guide to citing images using APA.

Journal reference in a reference list

Rosenvinge, J.-H., Skårderud, F., & Thune-Larsen, K. (2003). Can educational programmes raise clinical competence in treating eating disorders?  Results from a Norwegian trial. European Eating Disorders Review, 11, 329-343. doi:10.1002/erv.503

Notes: The above should be a hanging indent and double spaced. J.-H. is a hyphenated first name. The issue number is not present because this journal title is continuously paginated. The doi or digitial object identifier indicates retrieval from an online resource. Doi numbers are available in PsycINFO and/or on the article itself. If there is no doi and the article was read in a pdf document, I recommend citing it as a print reference. This is not in strict accordance with APA's Publication Manual, but the difficulty of finding a doi or of finding a publisher website makes this advisable. Can't find a doi? Locate an available doi here! Not all academic articles in Psychology that are available online have dois. Some online articles will have PMCIDs, which are Pub Med Central Identification numbers (e.g. PMCID: PMC2626925). PMCIDs are unique identifiers equivalent to dois.

Journal reference in text

Example 1

(Rosenvinge, Skårderud & Thune-Larsen, 2003) for the first time the reference is cited. Afterwards, use (Rosenvinge et al., 2003). If citing the same article in the same paragraph, use only Rosenvinge et al without the year. 

Notes: Cite up to five authors for the first time referenced in text. If there are six or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by et al and continue to do so throughout the text. Within the text of a paper, you may either use the author's name followed by a comma with the date of the publication, or you may use the author's name outside the comma with the date in parentheses immediately following the author's name.

Example 2

(Smith & Jones, 2009) OR Smith and Jones (2009)

Notes: Use "and" when you use the authors names in a sentence and "&" when you place it in parentheses.


Book chapter in a reference list

Vugt, M. van, & Park, J. H. (2010). The tribal instinct hypothesis: Evolution and the social psychology of intergroup relations. In S. Stürmer & M. Snyder (Eds.), The psychology of prosocial behavior: Group processes, intergroup relations, and helping (pp. 6-20). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Notes: The above should be a hanging indent and double spaced. Remember that author names are capitalized according to the country of origin (see the biographical section of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary in Langson Library Reference at PE1628 .M36 2003).

Book chapter in text

(Vugt & Park, 2010)

Notes: If you are quoting or refering to a single page, the in text citation might be (Vugt & Park, 2010, p. 7). If citing a particular chapter, (Vugt & Park, 2010, chap. 2). If citing a set of pages, use (Vugt & Park, 2010, pp. 7-10).

Report in a reference list - Tehcnical and research reports

Sahoo, A. (2011, April).  Probiotics and prebiotics in clinical nutrition: The regulatory landscape, unmet need and disease applications, future growth and key players (Reference Code: BI00044-004). Retrieved from Business Insights

Notes: The above should be a hanging indent and double spaced. Including the report number is not always necessary, but it can be useful. Use the same language as that on the actual document. The publisher is listed as part of the retrieval statement here because it was retrieved online. There is no location listed here because the document did not list one. Depending on your preference, you could investigate the location of the publisher, but only information retrivable from the document must be reflected.

Report in text

(Sahoo, 2011)

Notes: The month is not necessary. Page number citations are similar to those in book chapters.


A list of links that should help you to avoid plagiarism.