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English: Introductory Guide to Citations

Information resources for the UCI community interested in English language, literature, and literary criticism.
URL: https://guides.lib.uci.edu/literature

Modern Language Association - Citation Style

The current version of the Modern Language Association style, which is most often used in the humanities, is published in the MLA Handbook, 8th ed. New York: Modern Library Association of America, 2016. The style rules are subject to change with every new edition, so always make sure you are working with the most up-to-date version.

The Modern Language Association Website
Provides publishing information for current versions of their style guides.

Purdue Online Writing Lab MLA Formatting and Style Guide
Provides in-depth information on how to use MLA style, including many examples.

American Psychological Association - Citation Style

The American Psychological Association (APA) style is primarily used in the social sciences. The current version of the APA style is published in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Associationh, 6th ed. (2009). Washington: APA.The style rules are subject to change with every new edition, so always make sure you are working with the most up-to-date version.

The American Psychological Association provides detailed information on the basics of APA style and updates to the current version.

Purdue Online Writing Lab APA Formatting and Style Guide
Provides in-depth information on how to use APA style, including many examples.

 APA Style and Citation Resources A comprehensive libguide on how to use APA style and where to find more information.

Chicago/Turabian - Citation Style

The current version of the Chicago style is published in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2010). The style rules are subject to change with every new edition, so always make sure you are working with the most up-to-date version.

The Chicago Manual of Style Online provides detailed information on the basics of Chicago style and updates to the current version.

More information can be found in Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations8th ed.

Purdue Online Writing Lab Chicago Formatting and Style Guide
Provides in-depth information on how to use Chicago style, including many examples.

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When to Cite

*from UC San Diego's Social Sciences and Humanities Library

Documenting Your Sources

Cite This For Me -- A fast and free way to create your bibliography, reference list, or works cited list using APA, Chicago, or MLA citations styles.

Citing Images
A Libguide on visual literacy.

Overview

Citations document source information used in research. They add credibility to your work by showing where your information came from and give proper credit to the source material.

Knowing where to find and how to read citations will also help you significantly with your own research by pointing you towards ready sources of relevant information.

When to document a source

As you gather information to use in your research paper, it is important to keep track of where you found it. Your work should include a bibliography of all the sources you used, which you will also reference whenever you use information from them.

You do not need to cite your own ideas or any information that is considered common knowledge.

Everything else must be properly credited, using a commonly accepted citation style.

What does a citation include?

Article citations always include the following information, regardless of style:

  • Author(s)
  • Title
  • Periodical Title
  • Periodical Volume and issue numbers
  • Publisher
  • Year of Publication
  • Page numbers

This information will help other readers to locate the article.

Book citations always include the following information, regardless of style:

  • Author(s)
  • Title
  • Publisher
  • Location of Publisher
  • Year of Publication

This information will help other readers to locate the book.

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Helpful Links

Bibliographic Management Software - Try this LibGuide for information about different software programs that will help you to create a bibliography and keep track of citations.

BMS Comparison - Which one should you use? This chart compares the different bibliographic management software progams to help you decide which will work best for you.