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What is APA?

APA style, created by the American Psychological Association, is primarily used in behavioral and social sciences. Currently, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2019) is in its 7th edition. The style rules are subject to change with every new edition, so always make sure you are working with the most up-to-date version.

APA requires that you cite your sources using both in-text citations and reference-list citations

Core Components of a Citation

APA reference list citations are all based on four pieces of data, presented in this order: author, date of publication, title, and how/where to access.

Author surname, initial. (Date). Title of Resource. Retrieval information. 

Sample Citations

Journal Article

Galloway, M. K., Callin, P., James, S., Vimegnon, H., & McCall, L. (2019). Culturally Responsive, Antiracist, or Anti-Oppressive? How Language Matters for School Change Efforts. Equity & Excellence in Education, 52(4), 485–501.

In-Text Parenthetical Citation: (Galloway et al., 2019)

In-Text Narrative Citation: Galloway et al. (2019) suggests...


Kendi, I.X. (2019). How to be an Antiracist. Random House Publishing Group.

In-Text Parenthetical Citation: (Kendi, 2019).

In-Text Narrative Citation: In the introduction of his book, Kendi (2019) asserts...


Thomas, T. (2019, September 23). The Short Stacks 22: Ibram X. Kendi//How to be an Antiracist [Audio podcast]. The Stacks

In-Text Parenthetical Citation: (Thomas, 2019).

In-Text Narrative Citation: On an episode of her podcast from September 2019, Thomas discusses the book How to be an Antiracist with author and historian Ibbram X. Kendi.

APA Style Resources

APA Style and Grammar Guidelines

Published by the American Psychological Association, this resource includes detailed information about references, bias-free language, and setting up tables and figures in your research paper.

Excelsior College Online Writing Lab

This extensive Online Writing Lab includes a thorough guide to APA. The "APA Side By Side" page is an excellent resource for looking at different ways to include citations in your writing.