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Data Jargon

"Related items of (chiefly numerical) information considered collectively, typically obtained by scientific work and used for
reference, analysis, or calculation." (OED Online)

Raw Data
This term is fuzzy because almost any observable or recorded phenomena could theoretically be raw data, but people
often use it when referring to a dataset in a file format (i.e. an .xlsx or .csv file) that's presented as a spreadsheet. 
Caveat: raw data is not always cleaned data.  

Cleaned Data
To clean data, people or computer programs assess the data and correct any errors, omissions, duplicates, inaccuracies, etc.
so that the data is ready for analysis.  Determining whether data is clean enough for your needs can be tricky.  Read the
supporting documentation that accompanies a dataset, and contact the data producer if you have additional questions.  

Starting Points

Licensed Data and Mapping Tools

Many of UCI Libraries data and mapping databases are designed for researchers in the social sciences, but may be highly relevant to digital humanists.