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Information Literacy & Scholarly Communication Alignments & Disconnects

ACRL 2011 Poster Session

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Liaison Librarian

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Julia Gelfand
Office: Science Library 228

Phone: 949-824-4971


Fuller Scope

Scholarly Communication includes the scope of:

  1. Copyright & Fair Use
  2. Authors' Rights
  3. Open Access
  4. Scholarly Repurposing & Reuse
  5. Shared Resources
  6. Multiple means of distribution promoting electronic formats & methods
  7. Institutional & Disciplinary Repositories


Relevant Resources

There are many resources that inform and assist in better understanding all that is implied by scholarly communication.  The maturity of the topic suggests personal understanding as well as programmatic features for creating a program within the library and publishing communities.  These resources provide sufficient background and direction both for professional development and institutional support.

Selective Timeline of Scholarly Communications

This very abbreviated timeline chronicles the evoluation of Scholarly Communications as we know it today.  Organized in reverse chronology, it demonstrates the range of activities now currently associated with the spectrum included in Scholarly Communications.


21st Century - 2000+

Open Access Movement advances

  • 2000 - Tempe Principles for Emerging Systems of Scholarly Publishing issued.
  • 2000 - Collection of Open Digital Archives (CODA) launched by the CalTech Library System. (Named "Caltech CODA" in September 2002)
  • 2001 - Wikipedia launched by Jimmy Wales.
  • 2002 - BioMed Central started charging processing fees to cover the costs of free online access.
  • 2002 - HINARI started delivering free online content.
  • 2002 - Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) launched by the Open Society Institute.
  • 2002 - OAlster launched by the University of Michigan Libraries Digital Library Production Services.
  • 2002 - Project RoMEO (Rights MEtadata for Open archiving) launched by JIC-FAIR.
  • 2002 - Project SHERPA (Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access) launched by JISC-FAIR.
  • 2002 - Over 300 University of California Press books are made freely available online as eScholarship Editions, through a partnership with the eScholarship initiative of the California Digital Library.
  • 2002 - MIT released DSpace, its OAI-compliant open-source software for archiving eprints and other academic content.
  • 2002 - The Public Library of Science received a $9 million grant from the Moore Foundation for open-access publishing and announced its first two open-access journals.
  • 2003 - The Directory of Open Access Journals launched by Lund University with funding from the Open Society Institute and SPARC. (First announced February 14, 2003, but not officially launched until May 12.) 
  • 2003 - The Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing is released. 
  • 2003 - The Medical Library Association issued its Statement on Open Access. 
  • 2003 - PubMed Central became OAI-compliant .
  • 2003 - The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities was released by the Max Planck Society and European Cultural Heritage Online. (SOAN for 11/2/03.)
  • 2003 - The UN World Summit on the Information Society approved a Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action that contained explicit, if brief, endorsements of open access to scientific information.
  • 2004 - Elsevier announced its new policy permitting authors to post the final editions of their full-text Elsevier articles to their personal web sites or institutional repositories. The policy was officially announced on June 3 but first publicized on May 27. (See SOAN for 6/2/04 and 7/2/04.)
  • 2004 - Springer launched its Open Choice hybrid journal program.
  • 2004 - Google officially launched Google Print, which eventually differentiated into the Google Publisher program (book scanning with the consent of publishers) and the Google Library program (book scanning with the consent of libraries and not necessarily the consent of publishers). Prior to the official launch, the beta was publicly revealed as early as December 2003.
  • 2005 - Creative Commons officially launched Science Commons.
  • 2005 - SPARC officially launched its Author's Addendum to help authors modify publishing contracts and retain the rights they need to authorize open access.
  • 2006 - The Public Library of Science (PLoS) officially launched PLoS ONE.
  • 2007 - Science Commons released its protocol for implementing open access data.
  • 2008 - Congress passed, and the President signed, a spending bill mandating OA to research funded by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).
  • 2010 - National Science Foundation (NSF) mandates Data Management Plans to be a component of all grant application submissions to the NSF

    20th Century - pre2000

    1945   Vannevar Bush predicts new role for science by developing "memex" making knowledge more accessible and publishes essay, "As We May Think" in the Atlantic Monthly

    1965   ARPA sponsors study on "cooperative network of time-sharing computers"

    1965   Ted Nelson coins the terms: "hypertext" and "hyperlink" to refer to the structure of a computerized information system through which a user can navigate "nonsequentially"

    1967   OCLC  was founded as Ohio Computer Library Center - member libraries subsequently create WorldCat as largest inventory of global library holdings

    Late 1980s   The first digital-only, free journals (eventualy to be called "open access journals") were published on the Internet.  Among the  was Bryn Mawr Classical Review, Postmodern Culture, Psycoloquy, and Te Public-Access Computer Systems Review

  • 1991 - Carrigan, Dennis P. (1991) Publish or Perish: The Troubled State of Scholarly Communication. Scholarly Publishing 22 (3): 131-142
  • 1992 - Cummings, Anthony M., et al. (1992) University Libraries and Scholarly Communication: A Study Prepared for the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Washington: Association of Research Libraries for the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
  • 1993 - CERN announced that it was putting the basic web software into the public domain, relinquishing all intellectual property rights to it, and granting permission for all to "use, duplicate, modify and redistribute" it without charge. The signatures on this historic document are W. Hoogland, Director of Research, and H. Weber, Director of Administration.
  • 1993 - CERN launched its preprint server.
  • 1994 - Digital Libraries Initiative launched by the National Science Foundation and other U.S. federal agencies.
  • 1994 - HighWire Press launched by the Stanford University Libraries (fall or winter).
  • 1994 - The National Academies Press started the practice of creating free online full-text editions of all its priced, printed books, and documenting that the former help sell the latter.
  • 1995 - HighWire Press announced its first hosted or co-published journal, the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
  • 1998 - The National Electronic Article Repository (NEAR) proposed by David Shulenburger.
  • 1998 - Michael Rosenzweig and the rest of his editorial board resigned from Evolutionary Ecology in order to create Evolutionary Ecology Research.
  • 1999 - BioMed Central announced plan to offer free online access to all its journals.
  • 1999 - Declaration on Science and the Use of Scientific Knowledge issued by the UNESCO-ICSU World Conference on Science.
  • Early Days

    1040   Movable clay type invented in China

    1436   Gutenberg invented the printing press with replaceable/movable wooden or metal letters

    1665   First schoalrly journals published when the French Journal des scavans and the English Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society first began systematically publishing research results

    1675   Introduction of Peer Review

    Recommended Resources

    Selective Current Bibliography