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Criminology, Law & Society: Juvenile


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Juvenile Death Penalty: Roper v. Simmons (03-633) 543 U.S. 551 (2005)

Juvenile Life Without Parole (LWOP): Miller v. Alabama (10-9647), decided June 25, 2012

Holding: The Eighth Amendment prohibits a sentencing scheme that requires life in prison without the possibility of parole for juvenile homicide offenders.

JUSTICE KAGAN delivered the opinion of the Court. The two 14-year-old offenders in these cases were convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole.  In neither case did the sentencing authority have any discretion to impose a different punishment. State law mandated that each juvenile die in prison even if a judge or jury would have thought that his youth and its attendant characteristics, along with the nature of his crime, made a lesser sentence (for example, life with the possibility of parole) more appropriate.  Such a scheme prevents those meting out punishment from considering a juvenile’s “lessened culpability” and greater “capacity for change,”  Graham  v. Florida, 560 U. S. ___, ___ (2010) (slip op., at 17, 23), and runs afoul of our cases’ requirement of individualized sentencing for defendants facing the most serious penalties.

We therefore hold that mandatory life without parole for those under the age of 18 at the time of their crimes violates the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition on “cruel and unusual punishments.” 

California

SCOTUS Update

Juvenile Justice GPS - Geography, Policy, Practice, & Statistics

Juvenile Justice Resources

Solitary Confinement

Los Angeles

Orange County

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Brian Williams
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California Data

Crime Data Generally