*For the complete "Timeline of
the Open Access Movement" please refer to Peter Suber, Open- Access Timeline (formerly: FOS Timeline).*
- 1991 - Carrigan, Dennis P. (1991) Publish or
Perish: The Troubled State of Scholarly Communication. Scholarly
Publishing 22 (3): 131-142
- 1992 - Cummings, Anthony M., et al. (1992) University
Libraries and Scholarly Communication: A Study Prepared for the Andrew W.
Mellon Foundation. Washington: Association of Research Libraries for
the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
- 1993 - CERN announced that it was putting the basic web
software into the public domain, relinquishing all intellectual property
rights to it, and granting permission for all to "use, duplicate,
modify and redistribute" it without charge. The signatures on this
historic document are W. Hoogland, Director of Research, and H. Weber,
Director of Administration.
- 1993 - CERN launched its preprint server.
- 1994 - Digital Libraries Initiative launched by the
National Science Foundation and other U.S. federal agencies.
- 1994 - HighWire Press launched by the Stanford
University Libraries (fall or winter).
- 1994 - The National Academies Press started the
practice of creating free online full-text editions of all its priced,
printed books, and documenting that the former help sell the latter.
- 1995 - HighWire Press announced its first hosted or
co-published journal, the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
- 1998 - The National Electronic Article Repository
(NEAR) proposed by David Shulenburger.
- 1998 - Michael Rosenzweig and the rest of his editorial
board resigned from Evolutionary Ecology in order to create Evolutionary
- 1999 - BioMed Central announced plan to offer free
online access to all its journals.
- 1999 - Declaration on Science and the Use of
Scientific Knowledge issued by the UNESCO-ICSU World Conference on
- 2000 - Tempe Principles for Emerging Systems of
Scholarly Publishing issued.
- 2000 - Collection of Open Digital Archives (CODA)
launched by the CalTech Library System. (Named "Caltech CODA" in
- 2001 - Wikipedia launched by Jimmy Wales.
- 2002 - BioMed Central started charging processing fees
to cover the costs of free online access.
- 2002 - HINARI started delivering free online content.
- 2002 - Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) launched
by the Open Society Institute.
- 2002 - OAlster launched by the University of Michigan
Libraries Digital Library Production Services.
- 2002 - Project RoMEO (Rights MEtadata for Open
archiving) launched by JIC-FAIR.
- 2002 - Project SHERPA (Securing a Hybrid Environment
for Research Preservation and Access) launched by JISC-FAIR.
- 2002 - Over 300 University of California Press books
are made freely available online as eScholarship Editions, through a
partnership with the eScholarship initiative of the California Digital
- 2002 - MIT released DSpace, its OAI-compliant
open-source software for archiving eprints and other academic content.
- 2002 - The Public Library of Science received a $9
million grant from the Moore Foundation for open-access publishing and
announced its first two open-access journals.
- 2003 - The Directory of Open Access Journals launched
by Lund University with funding from the Open Society Institute and SPARC.
(First announced February 14, 2003, but not officially launched until May
- 2003 - The Bethesda
Statement on Open Access Publishing is released.
- 2003 - The Medical
Library Association issued its Statement on Open Access.
- 2003 - PubMed
Central became OAI-compliant .
- 2003 - The Berlin
Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities was
released by the Max Planck Society and European Cultural Heritage Online.
(SOAN for 11/2/03.)
- 2003 - The
UN World Summit on the Information Society approved a Declaration of
Principles and Plan of Action that contained explicit, if brief,
endorsements of open access to scientific information.
- 2004 - Elsevier
announced its new policy permitting authors to post the final editions of
their full-text Elsevier articles to their personal web sites or
institutional repositories. The policy was officially announced on June 3
but first publicized on May 27. (See SOAN for 6/2/04 and 7/2/04.)
- 2004 - Springer
launched its Open Choice hybrid journal program.
- 2004 - Google
officially launched Google Print, which eventually differentiated into the
Google Publisher program (book scanning with the consent of publishers)
and the Google Library program (book scanning with the consent of
libraries and not necessarily the consent of publishers). Prior to the
official launch, the beta was publicly revealed as early as December 2003.
- 2005 - Creative
Commons officially launched Science Commons.
- 2005 - SPARC
officially launched its Author's Addendum to help authors modify
publishing contracts and retain the rights they need to authorize open
- 2006 - The
Public Library of Science (PLoS) officially launched PLoS ONE.
- 2007 - Science
Commons released its protocol for implementing open access data.
- 2008 - Congress
passed, and the President signed, a spending bill mandating OA to research
funded by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).