When using Online or Internet Resources, consider Search Engines vs. metasites - evaluate resource - be attentive to domain -may include .com, .edu, .org, .gov, .net
Evaluating Information – Applying the CRAAP Test
For Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, Purpose
Goal is to establish relevancy. The evaluation criteria includes these issues:
Scope of coverage
Currency – be able to distinguish currency from timeliness
Relevance – meaningful to what audience; at what level; will you cite it as authoritative?
Authority – stem is author – establishes the source of the information – author/publisher/source/sponsor; organizational affiliations & credentials; contact information
Accuracy – reliability, correctness of content; supported by evidence; is it verifiable; is tone unbiased, objective, impartial & free of emotion; free of errors?
Purpose – are hypotheses and authors’ intentions clear? Why is content important – to inform, teach, sell, entertain or persuade? Any political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases?
Ease of use – Capturing, copying, citing; design & presentation
In order to avoid plagiarism and to honor intellectual integrity, make sure that you cite the authority in a bibliographic reference to anything that is not your original writing or creation - that means when you quote a passage, insert a graphic image, figures, or illustration, that you cite the original source. The style manual you choose to follow should document how you cite electronic resources. Standard formats include the following reference elements:
Standard formats include the following reference elements:
For a Journal article or conference proceeding:
Author(s) - last name, first name, MI, - [include multiple authors if noted] (date), Title of article. Source of Article/Title of Journal. volume #, (issue #): pages. If it is only an electronic publication with no reference to print pages, then you cite the DOI - Digital Object Identifier and the date last visited.
If it is a conference paper, then you cite the Source of the Publication, Title of conference, date and location of meeting.
For books, the format is:
Author, editor of volume or chapter, (imprint date). Title of chapter in Title of Book, edited by editor if different. City of Publication: Publisher, page references. Note if it is an eBook.
For full volume:
Author, (date). Title of Book. City of Publisher, Publisher: pages
ACM Style Guide - there are some examples in the link to MS Word in the list of references provided that can be used as a model for different writing elements
IEEE Citation Style - The IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2019) notes the specific ways that references and footnotes are to be handled in submissions to IEEE publications. The IEEE Referencing Guide notes practices and they are different than other styles, so follow this and perhaps these guides from the following university libraries will give more examples: Murdoch University or Purdue University's Owl series for IEEE.
MLA Style Format is documented by the with these resources and in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 2009 at Langson Library Reference Desk at: LL REF LB 2369 G53 2009
APA Style - The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020 is at every Reference Desk - REF BF76.7 .P83 2020. Additional resources with examples are noted at this site. A cheat sheet with many examples of how to cite different types of sources in many formats can be consulted.
BIBLIOGRAPHIC MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE - allows you to discover, find, manage, recall and apply the citations you retrieve from all formats of work - journal articles, book chapters, edited volumes, standards, specifications, patents, conference papers & proceedings, lectures, etc. Neither Zotero nor EndNote support BibTeX or LaTeX, only the usual wordprocessing languages or Legal Style Manual. For additional information, please visit the Bibliographic Management Software page. A comparison of all kinds of different products are noted at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_reference_management_software
Increasingly many of our licensed library resources are available via mobile devices - this link will tell you what is available and on what platform.
H o t s p o t r : Find a Wi-Fi hotspot in your area with Hotspotr, a Google Maps mashup that relies entirely on user input. As with other Wi-Fi finders, you can search for hotspots by city, ZIP code or place, then get maps, driving directions, phone numbers, etc.